Jersey City, New Jersey Revolutionary War Sites
HOME              TIMELINE              ABOUT              CONTACT
Bookmark and Share

Atlantic County     Bergen County     Burlington County     Camden County     Cape May County     Cumberland County     Essex County
Gloucester County     Hudson County     Hunterdon County     Mercer County     Middlesex County     Monmouth County     Morris County
Ocean County     Passaic County     Salem County     Somerset County     Sussex County     Union County     Warren County

REVOLUTIONARY WAR SITES IN JERSEY CITY, NEW JERSEY

Jersey City New Jersey Revolutionary War Sites
PAULUS HOOK FORT SITE
Paulus Hook - Revolutionary War
Paulus Hook

Paulus Hook Fort Site
Washington and Grand Streets
Map / Directions to the Paulus Hook Fort Site
Map / Directions to all Jersey City Revolutionary War Sites

Paulus Hook was built as an American fort in 1776. After the defeats in New York City, the Americans abandoned the fort. It was then occupied by the British.

In August 1779, Major Henry "Light Horse Harry" Lee advised General Washington of a plan to attack the fort and reclaim it from the British. This became known as the Battle of Paulus Hook. The assault was planned to begin shortly after midnight of August 19, 1779. Lee led a force of approximately 300 men. Some of the men got lost during the march. The attack got started late, but the main contingent of the force was able to reach the fort's gate without being challenged. The Americans succeeded in damaging the fort and took 158 prisoners. However, Lee chose not to destroy the fort. The fort contained wounded soldiers, and wives and children of soldiers, so Lee chose to spare the fort. As daytime arrived, Lee decided to withdraw before the British forces from New York could cross the river. Lee and his men retreated up what is now Newark Avenue. After a shooting engagement with pursuing British soldiers, they escaped to Hackensack. The British continued to occupy Paulus Hook until after the war. [1]

In a letter to Congress, George Washington wrote, "The Major displayed a remarkable degree of prudence, address and bravery upon this occasion, which does the highest honor to himself and to all the officers and men under his command. The situation of the fort rendered the attempt critical and the success brilliant." [2]

Lee received a gold medal from Congress for his attack on Paulus Hook. On the front of the medal was a bust of Lee, with the words (in Latin) "The American Congress to Henry Lee, major of cavalry". On the back was written (in Latin), "Notwithstanding rivers and ramparts, he conquered, with a handful of men, the enemy by skill and valor, and attached by his humanity those vanquished by his arms. In commemoration of the Battle of Paulus Hook, August 19, 1779." A reproduction of this medal was issued as part of the United States Mint's 1973/1974 series "America's First Medals". Photos and information about this series is available on the website of the NumisSociety. [3]

Jersey City NJ Historic Sites
APPLE TREE HOUSE
Apple Tree House
The Apple Tree House
298 Academy St.
Map / Directions to the Apple Tree House
Map / Directions to all Jersey City Revolutionary War Sites

Apple Tree House Website
Currently closed for restoration

The house takes its name from a legend that Washington visited this house, and dined under an apple tree in the yard with Lafayette. The Apple Tree fell from a storm on September 3, 1821. When Lafayette returned to America in 1824, he was presented with a walking stick made from the tree, bearing the inscription, "Shaded the hero and his friend Washington in 1779: presented by the Corporation of Bergen in 1824." It is on display at the Louvre Museum in Paris.

The Sentinel of Freedom newspaper, on September 28, 1824 quoted Dominie Cornelison presenting the walking stick as saying "As a tribute of esteem and veneration, permit me, sir, to ask the favor of your acceptance of this small token of respect, taken from an apple tree under which you once dined, and which once afforded you a shelter from the piercing rays of noonday; and, although it possesses no healing virtue, may it still be a support."

While it is known from their correspondence that both Washington and Lafayette were in Bergen (present day Jersey City) between August 24 and 26, 1780, many historians now question the accuracy of the story.  The prevailing theory is that Washington and Lafayette did meet under an apple tree in this area, but this house may not have been the correct location. Certainly, the Sentinel of Freedom article, and the existence of the cane in the Louvre are evidence of a Washington / Lafayette apple tree meeting in this area. And the house itself did stand here at that time. [4]

The Apple Tree house is currently closed for restoration. Click here for information about the state of the restoration.

Jersey City NJ Historic Sites
SITE OF THE HOME OF JANE TUERS
Jane Tuers House
Site of the Home of Jane Tuers

Site of the Home of Jane Tuers
Bergen Ave. and Mercer St.
Now the Hudson Catholic High School
Map / Directions to the site of the home of Jane Tuers
Map / Directions to all Jersey City Revolutionary War Sites

The site of Jane Van Reypen Tuers home is now the Hudson Catholic High School, which has a plaque on the Bergen Ave side of the building. Her original home was razed in for the construction of the old Fourth Regiment Armory in1894. [5]

There is a story involving Jane Tuers and information about Benedict Arnold.  I have some questions about the accuracy of this story, and will update this listing after further research. For now, here is a synopsis of the story from the New Jersey City University website, which itself is based on writings of the late Jersey City historian J. Owen Grundy. [6]

"Tuers lived with her husband Nicholas in a farm house located on the site of the present Hudson Catholic High School that extends to Tuers Avenue and the former Fourth Regiment Armory at Bergen Avenue and Mercer Street. Legend holds that it was her practice to cross the Hudson River on the Paulus Hook ferry to British-held Manhattan to sell her farm goods. She also brought food to the Sugar House prison, where the British detained American soldiers. On one such New York visit, she made a stop in the popular Fraunces Tavern, at Broad and Pearl Streets and spoke with the patriot owner "Black Sam" Fraunces from the West Indies. He informed Tuers of what he overheard at his establishment. British soldiers spent leisure time at the tavern and discussed the latest military strategy along with their refreshments. According to Fraunces, the soldiers were toasting General Benedict Arnold who was to deliver West Point to the British.

"When she returned home, Tuers told her brother Daniel Van Reypen, a blacksmith, about the conspiracy. A staunch patriot, Van Reypen traveled by horse to Hackensack, where he advised General "Mad" Anthony Wayne of the British scheme. Wayne reportedly brought Van Reypen to see General George Washington, who offered Van Reypen a reward. However, Van Reypen declined the money award and requested only that Washington intercede in the event of his capture.

"The information provided by Tuers confirmed what Washington had heard rumored about Arnold; it was received in advance of the arrest of Major John Andre, the British agent working with Arnold. Arnold had been assigned the stationary command at West Point after an injury, but he was dissatisfied with the post. After discovery of Arnold's treasonous plot, he escaped and defected to the British, becoming one of America's best-known traitors. Andre was tried, convicted, and hanged as a spy on October 2, 1780. The intervention by Jane Tuers and her brother helped secure West Point for the patriots. Its strategic location on the Hudson River made possible the receipt of supplies from New England and upper New York without venturing into nearby British controlled territory."

Jane Tuers is buried in an unmarked grave in the Old Bergen Church Cemetery, which is listed below.

Jersey City New during the Revolutionary War
OLD BERGEN CHURCH AND CEMETERY
Old Bergen Church
Jersey City, New Jersey

Old Bergen Church and Cemetery
1 Highland Ave.
Map / Directions to Old Bergen Church and Cemetery
Map / Directions to all Jersey City Revolutionary War Sites

The church was originally founded in 1662. It was rebuilt shortly before the Revolution in 1773. The current church building dates to 1842, and used many of the stones from the original church. [7]

During the Revolutionary War, the Reverend Jackson addressed his congregation about support for the patriots. This resulted in a personal reprimand before British General William Howe. [8]

Jane Tuers is buried in the church's cemetery, which is across the street. Unfortunately, she is buried in an unmarked grave. [9]

Jersey City, New Jersey
Jersey City NJ Historic Sites
JERSEY CITY HISTORY SIGN
Jersey City History Sign
Jersey City History Sign

Jersey City History Sign
Washington Blvd. and Pavonia Ave.
Map / Directions to the Jersey City History Sign
Map / Directions to all Jersey City Revolutionary War Sites

A sign across from the Newport Center Mall describes the history of the area, including its Revolutionary War era significance. [10]

ORIGINAL SITE OF SIP MANOR

Original Site of Sip Manor
Southeast corner of Bergen Ave. and Academy St.
Map / Directions to the Sip Manor Site
Map / Directions to all Jersey City Revolutionary War Sites

The Sip Manor was originally located at this intersection. General Cornwallis used it as his headquarters in 1776. [11]

In 1928, Sip Manor was moved to 5 Cherry Lane in Westfield NJ.

PLEASE NOTE THAT THE PHOTO AT THE RIGHT IS OF THE
SIP MANOR AT ITS CURRENT LOCATION IN WESTFIELD.

Sip Manor, New Jersey
Jersey City New Jersey Revolutionary War Sites
NEWKIRK HOUSE (Also known as the SUMMIT HOUSE)
Newkirk House - Jersey City
Jersey City in the Revolutionary War
Jersey City in the Revolutionary War
Newkirk House - Jersey City

Newkirk House
Now Sanai's Restaurant
510 Summit Ave
Map / Directions to the Newkirk House
Map / Directions to all Jersey City Revolutionary War Sites

The Newkirk House (also known as the Summit House) which is currently in use as Sanai's Restaurant, is the oldest building in Jersey City. When it was originally built circa 1690, it stood several blocks northeast of the nearby Dutch settlement known as Bergen Square. In 1928, it was moved to the current location. [12]

During the Revolutionary War, the building was included on a 1781 British army map drawn for General Henry Clinton. [13]

Sources:

1. ^ Information used in the Paulus Hook description was drawn from several sources, including:
         "Recalling Paulus Hook; Jersey City's Revolutionary Battle". The New York Times. August 20, 1879, which is available as a PDF Here
         John Perry Lee: A Life of Virtue (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 2010) p. 12-13   / Available to be read online at Google Books Here

2. ^ John Perry Lee: A Life of Virtue (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 2010) p.13   / Available to be read online at Google Books Here

3. ^ America's First Medals article, on the website of the NumisSociety

4. ^ The Apple Tree House entry was based on several sources. Two main ones, which both explain the theory on the origin of the legend in more detail, are both available on line:
         Van Wagenen Homestead/Apple Tree House article, by Carmela Karnoutsos, Jersey City, Past and Present section of the New Jersey City University website
         About The Apple Tree House article, on the Apple Tree House website

The book which is believed to be the origin of the story that the Apple Tree meeting occurred at this house is The History of the County of Hudson, New Jersey by Charles Hardenburg Winfield, published in 1874. Both of the sources listed above explain the believed mis-location made in this book. The book is available online in Google Books here

5. ^ Jane Tuers page of the New Jersey City University.

6. ^Jane Tuers page of the New Jersey City University. On the page, the following sources are listed for the article:
        Grundy, J. Owen. "Where's Plaque to Jersey City Heroine?" Jersey Journal. 13 April, 1968.
        Grundy, J. Owen. The History of Jersey City, 1609-1976. Jersey City, NJ: Progress Printing Co., Inc., 1976.
        Robinson, Walter F. Old Bergen Township (Now Hudson County) in the American Revolution. Bayonne, NJ: Keystone Printing Company, 1978.

7. ^ Hudson County Sesquicentennial sign in front of the church. Sign erected in 1990, and sponsored by the Provident Savings Bank.

8. ^History page of the Old Bergen Church website

9. ^ Various sources list Jane Tuers as being buried here. After I searched through the cemetery and didn't find her grave, I did locate a source for the grave being unmarked. The Hudson County Genealogical & Historical Society gives tours of local historic cemeteries. Videos of the tours are available online, and in this Youtube video of a May 9, 2009 tour, the Hudson County Genealogical & Historical Society guide explains that her grave is unmarked. The information about Jane Tuers begins at 3:06.

10. ^ State of New Jersey historic sign

11. ^ Jersey City town website

12. ^ Jersey City historic sign

13. ^ History page of the Sanai's Restaurant website